Thursday, 13 June 2013

Contrastive Analysis Progress Test.

Assalamualaikum WBT,

How do you do? It has been a long time eyh? Well, I want to share with you on this one subject. I took this subject during my 7th term or 8th term, I am sorry, I do not really remember. Sorry. Well, the subject was Contrastive Analysis. To be honest, I do love learning it, still, I am glancing and reading the book, even though, I am not taking any courses on language now. This was the first progress test on the subject.

Let me give you the questions and the answer *my answers.

1. What is Error Analysis?

The meaning of Error Analysis is the study of types and causes of errors. Meaning here, learning error analysis is able to analyse the error committed by the speakers or writers. For example, if a Spanish speaker uttered a sentence which we know has error, "She comed yesterday". It means here, we can analysed the types of errors and also the causes of error. As you can see in the example given, there is no 'comed' word and it is wrong and it is under Intralingual (the causes) is Ignorance of Rules. Therefore, by learning Error Analysis we can detect the errors committed by the speakers and writers.

*it anyone's game actually. 

2. What is the major defect of Contrastive Analysis?

Contrastive Analysis claims that all errors made in learning the Second Language could be attributed to interference by the first language. It is seen that the theory is challenged for that many errors predicted by Contrastive Analysis is not observed in learner's language. Some errors made by learners were not through the interference of the first language. Some of them, not all. In Contrastive Analysis, we have to analyse the two value languages. It means here languages have its own systems. Therefore, we will have hard time analysing the mistakes because of the language systems. It is also because of the transfer of first language in learning the second language.

3. Give THREE reasons why the second language learners' errors are significant.

a. They ( the Second Language learners) served as devices by which the learners discovered the rules of the target language.

b. The Second Language learners provided the researchers with evidence of how the language was learned.

c. They provided the researchers with information about how much the learners have learned.

4. Explain briefly the FOUR steps of Error Analysis.

a. Data Collection

In Analysing the errors, for the first step, we must collect the data. In data collection, we can collect both ways, either written form or verbal form (speaking). We can collect the data from random respondents. It is also concern with the field that we want to study. It depends on the Target Language and also the Native Language.  

b. Error Identification

After we collect the data, we need to actually identify the errors committed in speaking or written forms. In identifying the errors, we need to have the competency in the Target Language for example understand or master the grammar, morphology, syntax, lexical and so forth. For example, back to the example that I used in the question before, "She comed yesterday". We can easily identify the error straight away because we know the correct form of the sentence. *If only we have good understanding on the grammar and also the technical terms. The speaker or writer committed intralanguage error which means he/she must have been influenced by the Rules of Target Language. The correct  form is "She came yesterday".

c. Error Description

After we identify the errors, we need to describe the errors. We need to put the error in the correct item. As in the above example "She comed yesterday", the writer/speaker has committed the error in tenses. He/she made error might because  of his/her background but this intralanguage error, which means he/she has been influenced by the rules of Target Language ( TL ).

d. Data Explanation

After done with all the three steps above, we need to do is data explanation. In explaining the data, we need to consider all of our own knowledge that we mastered in the target language. We need to include the source, the causes of errors committed by the speakers or writers. We also need to add on whether the speakers or writers committed  what type of errors (interlanguage errors, intralanguage errors, avoidance or ignorance).

5. According to Richards (1974),  intralingual and developmental errors are caused by several factors. Explain, with TWO examples, the ignorance of rule restrictions factor.

The ignorance of rule restrictions factor is when the speakers or writers or both ignored the rule restrictions in the target language. The speaker, or writers or both tend to omit the rules of the Target Language. As for the example, in the sentence, "I eating'. In the sentence, we all understand the meaning of the sentence but the speakers or writers or both have OMIT/IGNORED the morpheme 'am'. He or she/ they have ignored the rule restrictions factor. Those who have the basic grammar will know about the error committed but for those who do not obtain the knowledge about the basic grammar of English language would easily concluded that the sentence 'I eating' is correct because they understood the meaning of the sentence but the truth is, its wrong. 'I' must have 'am' because it is always and forever like that. So in 'He does...', we cannot omit or change the system to 'I is ______ .' It can not be like that. Ignorance of rule restrictions under intralingual (types of errors).

The second example would be 'I comed yesterday'. Here, the error occurred is ignorance or rule restrictions. Even though, we know the meaning but the omitter ignored the rules of tenses. In English (Target Language), it is a tense (time) language, where we need to follow the rules of tenses. There are three major tenses, past tense,  present tense and future tense. Therefore, to utter such sentence like 'I comed yesterday' is wrong because there is another form of (past tense) the word 'came' to show past tense because it is the rule. If we do not use the rules/system which have/has been recognised for so long, we can assume that comitters have reached the level we called 'fossilised'.

Done, that is all! This subject was taught by Dr Kamariah. Thanks Dr.

Assalamualaikum WBT

p/s: Watching Twilight.

Tuesday, 4 June 2013

Basic Principles in Applying Effective Communication Skills.

Assalamualaikum WBT,

How do you do? I am so very sorry for writing this late, I just get the ideas to write, so, here I am, writing again. 

Well, for this entry, I am not going to write about language, but I am going to write about Communication. Yes, effective communication. I did learn on communication during my uni life. Yes. Communication is important but effective communication far more important than just communicate. 

Alright, there are several things that we need to know when we want to communicate effectively. 

1. Start any conversation with warm sincere smiles on the face.

How to make warm sincere smiles? Hey, use your phone camera or mirror that you have with you all the time to practice. Practice makes perfect right? Smile always the perfect tool to start a conversation, with smiling we would easily know that the person who we want to talk with is a good human being. That would be the first impression, at least. 

Well, let say you want to talk to a person in front of you. But then, you do not know what would be the topic to talk about. First thing that you need to do is, smile. That would create the biggest magic ever, then, you need to look at his/her appearance or look at her/his preference. Who knows that his/her preferences might be the same with you right? Then, start talking girl. 

2. A greeting with a proper handshake.

That smile you gave in the beginning is already great, but please, do not shake like you want to sign a three million contracts. Please, you barely know the person that you want to talk with *apply this to strangers them, but you use a big physical contact. Hey, this is not rugby. Take note people. The best way to make a handshake is to actually practice with shake your own hand. Feel your grip and if you think that your grip is too tight, so, do think that other people could bear your bear grip handshake? Think back okay? The proper handshake would be best described as a slightly downwards position, handgrip with a light-firm effect. 

3. The eyes and ears.

Your eyes and ears actually the biggest advantages and could be also be your biggest disadvantages. Why? Please, when you communicate with people, do not look other way, or make other people uncomfortable. Why? Like you were talking but then, other people were looking at other things and not you. What do you feel? Ashamed? Wondering? Angry? So, that would other people feel when you do the same.

Listen and hear others, trust me, they will listen and hear you too. 

4. Respect and trust.

Respect and trust always be the best tool in communicate effectively. Why? When you respect others, people will respect you back, but, when you talk bad about others, eventually, people will know you colours. 

Trust actually comes from your very words. So, please separate things that want to share and things that you need to keel for yourself. Do not be plastic, why? Because, eventually, people do not want plastic to ruin the environment. Be like a tree, see everything and shades other people. *what the heck I am talking about? Well, you got the point right? So, next! 

5. Always start with positive thought in mind.

Yes, it is actually really hard to do this, why? Because, not all people has fresh start everyday right? What ever it is, at least try to be positive mind okay? Yes, its hard but it is not impossible. 

6. Remember names.

This is actually a very hard thing to do. Why? If you are like me, I am a person who has good imaginary mind, I tend to remember faces rather than names. So, well, it is not like we have to describe people using their faces but at least, try to remember their names. If its hard to do, try to ask other people on their nicknames or, try to put one great name to remember their nicknames. For example, you friend's name is Heidi and try to take one unique character about her and put that to her name and see how it goes. It its did not work, just use 'darling', or 'honey', or 'sister' or anything else, meanwhile you'd better look for their names, okay? Do not hesitate to ask about their personal too, who knows it can be the trigger point to remember their names.

7. Thank you.

Say thank you. That would conclude EVERYTHING. It shows how mature your are and how good your are to people. But remember to watch out your tone when say 'thank you', it is an easy word to say but with using different tones, it would easily kill the mood. Sincere tone and sarcastic tone is actually very different tones. Please, take note, okay? as usual, practice makes perfect.

Well, that is all for now. Thank you to Uzaimah binti Ahmad Nizam for writing very nice articles. Her column is Communication English, VARSITI. Love her column, she helped me a lot. 

Assalamualaikum WBT,

p/s: we Moslem, can start with 'Assalamualaikum' to start a conversation, that would be best tool. Yes.